1984 United States Senate elections

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United States Senate elections, 1984

← 1982November 6, 19841986 →

Class 2 (33 of the 100) seats in the United States Senate
51 seats needed for a majority
 Majority partyMinority party
 Howard Baker 1989.jpgRobert C. Byrd – 1977.jpg
LeaderHoward Baker
(retired)
Robert Byrd
PartyRepublicanDemocratic
Leader sinceMarch 5, 1980January 3, 1977
Leader's seatTennesseeWest Virginia
Seats before5545
Seats won5347
Seat changeDecrease 2Increase2
Popular vote22,850,49323,079,278
Percentage49.3%49.8%
SwingIncrease5.9%Decrease 4.3%
Seats up1914
Races won1716

1984 Senate election map.svg
Results
     Democratic gain      Democratic hold
     Republican gain      Republican hold

Majority Leader before election

Howard Baker
Republican

Elected Majority Leader

Bob Dole
Republican

The United States Senate elections, 1984 coincided with the landslide re-election of President Ronald Reagan in the presidential election. In spite of the lopsided presidential race, Reagan's Republican Party suffered a net loss of two Senate seats to the Democrats, although it retained control of the Senate and gained seats in the House.

Results summary

PartiesIncum
bents
This
election
Result+/-Popular Vote
Not upWonVote%
Democratic45311647Increase 223,079,27849.82%
Republican55361753Decrease 222,850,49349.33%
Libertarian0000Steady160,7980.35%
Others0000Steady232,2310.50%
Total1006733100Steady46,322,800100.0%

Source: Election Statistics - Office of the Clerk

5347
RepublicanDemocratic

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

D1D2D3D4D5D6D7D8D9D10
D20D19D18D17D16D15D14D13D12D11
D21D22D23D24D25D26D27D28D29D30
D40
Ran
D39
Ran
D38
Ran
D37
Ran
D36
Ran
D35
Ran
D34
Ran
D33
Ran
D32
Ran
D31
D41
Ran
D42
Ran
D43
Ran
D44
Retired
D45
Retired
R55
Retired
R54
Retired
R53
Ran
R52
Ran
R51
Ran
Majority →
R41
Ran
R42
Ran
R43
Ran
R44
Ran
R45
Ran
R46
Ran
R47
Ran
R48
Ran
R49
Ran
R50
Ran
R40
Ran
R39
Ran
R38
Ran
R37
Ran
R36R35R34R33R32R31
R21R22R23R24R25R26R27R28R29R30
R20R19R18R17R16R15R14R13R12R11
R1R2R3R4R5R6R7R8R9R10

After the elections

D1D2D3D4D5D6D7D8D9D10
D20D19D18D17D16D15D14D13D12D11
D21D22D23D24D25D26D27D28D29D30
D40
Re-elected
D39
Re-elected
D38
Re-elected
D37
Re-elected
D36
Re-elected
D35
Re-elected
D34
Re-elected
D33
Re-elected
D32
Re-elected
D31
D41
Re-elected
D42
Re-elected
D43
Re-elected
D44
Hold
D45
Hold
D46
Gain
D47
Gain
R53
Gain
R52
Hold
R51
Re-elected
Majority →
R41
Re-elected
R42
Re-elected
R43
Re-elected
R44
Re-elected
R45
Re-elected
R46
Re-elected
R47
Re-elected
R48
Re-elected
R49
Re-elected
R50
Re-elected
R40
Re-elected
R39
Re-elected
R38
Re-elected
R37
Re-elected
R36R35R34R33R32R31
R21R22R23R24R25R26R27R28R29R30
R20R19R18R17R16R15R14R13R12R11
R1R2R3R4R5R6R7R8R9R10
Key:
D#Democratic
R#Republican

Race summary

Special elections during the 98th Congress

There were no special elections during 1984 or before January 3, 1985.

Elections leading to the next Congress

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning January 3, 1985; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State
(linked to
summaries below)
IncumbentResultsCandidates
SenatorPartyElectoral history
AlabamaHowell HeflinDemocratic1978Incumbent re-elected.√ Howell Heflin (Democratic) 62.7%
Albert L. Smith, Jr. (Republican) 36.4%
Yana Davis (Libertarian) 0.9%
AlaskaTed StevensRepublican1968 (Appointed)
1970
1972
1978
Incumbent re-elected.Ted Stevens (Republican) 71.2%
John E. Havelock (Democratic) 28.5%
ArkansasDavid PryorDemocratic1978Incumbent re-elected.David Pryor (Democratic) 57.3%
Ed Bethune (Republican) 42.7%
ColoradoWilliam L. ArmstrongRepublican1978Incumbent re-elected.William L. Armstrong (Republican) 64.2%
Nancy E. Dick (Democratic) 34.6%
Craig Green (Libertarian) 0.9%
David Martin (Socialist Workers) 0.2%
Earl Higgerson (Prohibition) 0.1%
DelawareJoe BidenDemocratic1972
1978
Incumbent re-elected.Joe Biden (Democratic) 60.1%
John M. Burris (Republican) 39.1%
GeorgiaSam NunnDemocratic1972 (Special)
1972
1978
Incumbent re-elected.Sam Nunn (Democratic) 79.9%
Jon M. Hicks (Republican) 20.1%
IdahoJames A. McClureRepublican1972
1978
Incumbent re-elected.James A. McClure (Republican) 72.2%
Peter M. Busch (Democratic) 26.0%
Donald Billings (Libertarian) 1.8%
IllinoisCharles H. PercyRepublican1966
1972
1978
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Paul Simon (Democratic) 50.1%
Charles H. Percy (Republican) 48.2%
Steven Givot (Libertarian) 1.2%
Marjorie Pries (Citizens) 0.2%
Nelson Gonzalez (Socialist Workers) 0.1%
Ishmael Flory (Communist) 0.1%
IowaRoger JepsenRepublican1978Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Tom Harkin (Democratic) 55.5%
Roger Jepsen (Republican) 43.7%
Garry De Young (Independent) 0.8%
KansasNancy Landon KassebaumRepublican1978
1978 (Appointed)
Incumbent re-elected.Nancy Landon Kassebaum (Republican) 76.0%
James R. Maher (Democratic) 21.2%
Lucille Bieger (Conservative) 0.9%
Marian Jackson (American) 0.7%
Douglas Merritt (Libertarian) 0.7%
Freda Steele (Prohibition) 0.5%
KentuckyWalter HuddlestonDemocratic1972
1978
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Mitch McConnell (Republican) 49.9%
Walter Huddleston (Democratic) 49.5%
Dave Welters (Socialist Workers) 0.6%
LouisianaJ. Bennett JohnstonDemocratic1972 (Appointed)
1972
1978
Incumbent re-elected.Bennett Johnston Jr. (Democratic) 85.7%
Robert Max Ross (Republican) 8.9%
MaineWilliam CohenRepublican1972
1978
Incumbent re-elected.William Cohen (Republican) 73.3%
Libby Mitchell (Democratic) 25.9%
Ann Stoddard (Constitutionalist) 0.8%
MassachusettsPaul TsongasDemocratic1978Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
John Kerry (Democratic) 55.1%
Ray Shamie (Republican) 44.9%
MichiganCarl LevinDemocratic1978Incumbent re-elected.Carl Levin (Democratic) 51.8%
Jack R. Lousma (Republican) 47.2%
MinnesotaRudy BoschwitzRepublican1978
1978 (Appointed)
Incumbent re-elected.Rudy Boschwitz (Republican) 58.1%
Joan Growe (Democratic) 41.3%
MississippiThad CochranRepublican1978
1978 (Appointed)
Incumbent re-elected.Thad Cochran (Republican) 60.9%
William Winter (Democratic) 39.1%
MontanaMax BaucusDemocratic1978
1978 (Appointed)
Incumbent re-elected.Max Baucus (Democratic) 56.9%
Chuck Cozzens (Republican) 40.7%
Neil Halprin (Libertarian) 2.4%
NebraskaJ. James ExonDemocratic1978Incumbent re-elected.√ J. James Exon (Democratic) 51.9%
Nancy Hoch (Republican) 48.0%
New HampshireGordon J. HumphreyRepublican1978Incumbent re-elected.Gordon J. Humphrey (Republican) 58.7%
Norman D'Amours (Democratic) 41.0%
Saunder Primack (Libertarian) 0.3%
New JerseyBill BradleyDemocratic1978Incumbent re-elected.Bill Bradley (Democratic) 64.2%
Mary V. Mochary (Republican) 35.2%
New MexicoPete DomeniciRepublican1972
1978
Incumbent re-elected.Pete Domenici (Republican) 71.9%
Judith A. Pratt (Democratic) 28.1%
North CarolinaJesse HelmsRepublican1972
1978
Incumbent re-elected.Jesse Helms (Republican) 51.7%
Jim Hunt (Democratic) 47.8%
OklahomaDavid L. BorenDemocratic1978Incumbent re-elected.David L. Boren (Democratic) 75.6%
Will E. Crozier (Republican) 23.4%
Robert Murphy (Libertarian) 0.9%
OregonMark HatfieldRepublican1966
1972
1978
Incumbent re-elected.Mark Hatfield (Republican) 66.5%
Margie Hendriksen (Democratic) 33.4%
Rhode IslandClaiborne PellDemocratic1960
1966
1972
1978
Incumbent re-elected.Claiborne Pell (Democratic) 72.6%
Barbara Leonard (Republican) 27.4%
South CarolinaStrom ThurmondRepublican1954
1954 (Appointed)
1956 (Resigned)
1956 (Special)
1960
1966
1972
1978
Incumbent re-elected.Strom Thurmond (Republican) 66.8%
Melvin Purvis, Jr. (Democratic) 31.8%
South DakotaLarry PresslerRepublican1978Incumbent re-elected.Larry Pressler (Republican) 74.5%
George V. Cunningham (Democratic) 25.5%
TennesseeHoward BakerRepublican1966
1972
1978
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Al Gore (Democratic) 60.7%
Victor Ashe (Republican) 33.8%
Ed McAteer (Independent) 5.3%
TexasJohn TowerRepublican1961 (Special)
1966
1972
1978
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Phil Gramm (Republican) 58.5%
Lloyd Doggett (Democratic) 41.4%
VirginiaJohn WarnerRepublican1978
1979 (Appointed)
Incumbent re-elected.John Warner (Republican) 70.0%
Edythe C. Harrison (Democratic) 29.9%
West VirginiaJennings RandolphDemocratic1958 (Special)
1960
1966
1972
1978
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Winner delayed term until January 15, 1985 to finish term as Governor of West Virginia.
Jay Rockefeller (Democratic) 51.8%
John Raese (Republican) 47.7%
Mary Radin (Socialist Workers) 0.5%
WyomingAlan K. SimpsonRepublican1978
1979 (Appointed)
Incumbent re-elected.Alan K. Simpson (Republican) 78.3%
Victor A. Ryan (Democratic) 21.7%


Alabama

Alaska

Alaska election

← 1978
1990 →
 Ted Stevens 1977.jpgJohn Havelock.jpg
NomineeTed StevensJohn Havelock
PartyRepublicanDemocratic
Popular vote146,91958,804
Percentage71.17%28.49%

U.S. Senator before election

Ted Stevens
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Ted Stevens
Republican

Incumbent Republican Ted Stevens sought re-election to a third term. Owing to his popularity and the conservative bent of Alaska, Stevens did not face major opposition, and easily defeated former Alaska Attorney General John Havelock in the general election.

Open primary results[1]
PartyCandidateVotes%
RepublicanTed Stevens (incumbent)65,52269.22%
DemocraticJohn Havelock19,07420.15%
DemocraticDave Carlson4,6204.88%
RepublicanMichael Beasley2,4432.58%
DemocraticJoe Tracanna1,6611.75%
DemocraticPhil Stoddard1,3311.41%
Total votes94,651100.00%
Alaska general election[2]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
RepublicanTed Stevens (Incumbent) 146,919 71.17% −4.42%
DemocraticJohn E. Havelock58,80428.49%+4.39%
Write-ins7150.35%
Majority88,11542.68%−8.81%
Turnout206,438
Republican holdSwing

Arkansas

Arkansas election

← 1978
1990 →
 AR Pryor David (cropped).jpgEd Bethune.jpg
NomineeDavid PryorEd Bethune
PartyDemocraticRepublican
Popular vote502,341373,615
Percentage57.35%42.65%

U.S. Senator before election

David Pryor
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

David Pryor
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat David Pryor won re-election to a second term over Republican U.S. Representative Ed Bethune.

General election results[3]
PartyCandidateVotes%
DemocraticDavid Pryor (Incumbent)502,34157.35%
RepublicanEd Bethune373,61542.65%
Majority128,72614.70%
Turnout875,956
Democratic hold

Colorado

Delaware

Delaware election

← 1978
1990 →
 Joebiden2.pngNo image.svg
NomineeJoe BidenJohn M. Burris
PartyDemocraticRepublican
Popular vote147,83198,101
Percentage60.11%39.89%

Delaware Election Results by county, all Democrat.png
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Joe Biden
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Joe Biden
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Joe Biden won re-election to a third term, defeating Republican challenger John M. Burris, former Majority Leader of the Delaware House of Representatives.

General election results[2]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
DemocraticJoe Biden (Incumbent) 147,831 60.11% +2.15%
RepublicanJohn M. Burris98,10139.89%-1.13%
Majority49,73020.22%+3.28%
Turnout245,932
Democratic holdSwing

Georgia

Georgia election

← 1978
1990 →
 Sam Nunn.jpgNo image.svg
NomineeSam NunnMike Hicks
PartyDemocraticRepublican
Popular vote1,344,104337,196
Percentage79.9%20.1%

Georgia D Sweep.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Sam Nunn
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Sam Nunn
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Sam Nunn won re-election to a third term over Republican educator, Mike Hicks[4][5]

General election results[5]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
DemocraticSam Nunn 1,344,104 79.94% -3.19%
RepublicanMike Hicks337,19620.06%+3.19%
Majority1,006,90859.88%-6.39%
Turnout1,681,300

Idaho

Illinois

Illinois election

← 1978
1990 →
 Paul Simon (US Senator from Illinois).jpgCharles Percy.jpg
NomineePaul SimonCharles Percy
PartyDemocraticRepublican
Popular vote2,397,1652,308,039
Percentage50.07%48.21%

U.S. Senator before election

Charles H. Percy
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Paul Simon
Democratic

Incumbent Republican Charles H. Percy ran for re-election to a fourth term in the United States Senate. Senator Percy was opposed by Democratic nominee Paul Simon, who was a United States Congressman from Illinois's 22nd congressional district. The campaign between Percy and Simon was brutal and toughly-fought, and ended up with Simon ousting Percy by fewer than 90,000 votes, which was, at the time, considered an upset.

The election was very close. Simon prevailed by only 89,126 votes, or 1.86%. Incumbent Percy did well all throughout the state, including the Chicago collar counties. However, Simon received huge numbers out of the heavily populated and Democratic Cook County, which encompasses most of the Chicago Metropolitan Area. Percy led early on and well into the night, but as Cook County began to count all of its votes, Simon pulled ahead. Simon won despite then-president Reagan winning the state easily. Percy called Simon at around 5 A.M. the next day and conceded. Percy also congratulated Simon on his hard-earned victory. Simon was sworn in on January 3, 1985, and served in the senate until January 3, 1997, when he retired. Simon was later succeeded by Dick Durbin, a close friend and fellow Democrat.

Illinois general election[2]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
DemocraticPaul Simon 2,397,165 50.07% +4.60%
RepublicanCharles H. Percy (Incumbent)2,308,03948.21%-5.13%
LibertarianSteve I. Givot59,7771.25%+0.74%
IndependentMarjorie H. Pries12,3660.26%
Socialist WorkersNelson Gonzalez4,9130.10%-0.40%
CommunistIshmael Flory4,8020.10%
Write-ins2730.01%
Majority89,1261.86%-6.00%
Turnout4,787,335
Democratic gain from RepublicanSwing

Iowa

Iowa election

← 1978
1990 →
 Tom Harkin 1979 congressional photo.jpgRoger Jepsen.JPG
NomineeTom HarkinRoger Jepsen
PartyDemocraticRepublican
Popular vote716,883564,381
Percentage55.46%43.66%

U.S. Senator before election

Roger Jepsen
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Tom Harkin
Democratic

Incumbent Republican Roger Jepsen ran for re-election to a second term in the United States Senate. Jepsen was opposed by United States Congressman Tom Harkin, from Iowa's 5th congressional district, who won the Democratic primary uncontested. The general election was full of mudslinging and personal attacks, including the embellishment by both candidates of their military records; Harkin attacked Jepsen for failing to keep his promise to not sell AWACS aircraft to Saudi Arabia.[6] Ultimately, Harkin defeated Jepsen by a wide margin, winning the first of five terms in the Senate.

Democratic primary results[7]
PartyCandidateVotes%
DemocraticTom Harkin106,00599.93%
DemocraticWrite-ins700.07%
Total votes106,075100.00%
Republican primary results[7]
PartyCandidateVotes%
RepublicanRoger Jepsen (Incumbent)113,99699.87%
RepublicanWrite-ins1470.13%
Total votes114,143100.00%
Iowa general election[2]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
DemocraticTom Harkin 716,883 55.46% +7.54%
RepublicanRoger Jepsen (Incumbent)564,38143.66%-7.47%
IndependentGarry De Young11,0140.85%
Write-ins4220.03%
Majority152,50211.80%+8.58%
Turnout1,292,700
Democratic gain from RepublicanSwing

Kansas

Kentucky

Kentucky election

← 1978
1990 →
 Mitch-McConnell-99th.jpgWHuddleston.jpg
NomineeMitch McConnellWalter Huddleston
PartyRepublicanDemocratic
Popular vote644,990639,721
Percentage49.9%49.5%

KY-USA 1984 Senate Results by County 2-color.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Walter Huddleston
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Mitch McConnell
Republican

Incumbent Democrat Walter Huddleston ran for re-election to a third term, but lost by less than 0.5% to Jefferson County Executive Mitch McConnell.

Huddleston was unopposed in the Democratic Party's primary.

Republican primary results[8]
PartyCandidateVotes%
RepublicanMitch McConnell39,46579.22%
RepublicanC. Roger Harker3,7987.62%
RepublicanTommy Klein3,3526.73%
RepublicanThurman Jerome Hamlin3,2026.43%
Total votes49,817100.00%
General election results[2]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
RepublicanMitch McConnell 644,990 49.90% +13.03%
DemocraticWalter Huddleston (Incumbent)639,72149.50%-11.48%
Socialist WorkersDave Welters7,6960.60%
Majority5,2690.41%-23.70%
Turnout1,292,407
Republican gain from DemocraticSwing

Louisiana

Maine

Maine election

← 1978
1990 →
 Senator William Cohen (R-ME).jpgLibbyMitchell (cropped).jpg
NomineeWilliam CohenLibby Mitchell
PartyRepublicanDemocratic
Popular vote404,414142,626
Percentage73.3%25.9%

U.S. Senator before election

William Cohen
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

William Cohen
Republican

Incumbent Republican William Cohen won re-election to a second term over Democrat Libby Mitchell, State Representative.

General election results
PartyCandidateVotes%
RepublicanWilliam Cohen (Incumbent)404,41473.34%
DemocraticLibby Mitchell142,62625.87%
ConstitutionalistP. Ann Stoddard4,3380.79%

Massachusetts

Massachusetts election

← 1978
1990 →
 John Kerry (9504751924).jpgNo image.svg
NomineeJohn KerryRay Shamie
PartyDemocraticRepublican
Popular vote1,393,1501,136,913
Percentage55.06%44.94%

1984 MA Senate.png
Results by town. Red indicates towns carried by Ray Shamie, blue indicates towns carried by John Kerry.

U.S. Senator before election

Paul Tsongas
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

John Kerry
Democratic

The election was won by Democrat John Kerry, the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts who remained Senator until 2013 when he resigned to become U.S. Secretary of State. One-term incumbent Paul Tsongas declined to seek re-election and retired from the Senate following a battle with cancer.

Democratic Primary [9]
PartyCandidateVotes%
DemocraticJohn Kerry322,47040.83%
DemocraticJames Shannon297,94137.72%
DemocraticDavid M. Bartley85,91010.88%
DemocraticMichael Connolly82,99910.51%
All others5020.06%
Republican Primary [10]
PartyCandidateVotes%
RepublicanRay Shamie173,85162.38%
RepublicanElliot Richardson104,76137.59%
All others700.03%
General election
PartyCandidateVotes%
DemocraticJohn Kerry1,393,15055.06%
RepublicanRay Shamie1,136,91344.94%
All others4080.02%
Turnout2,530,063

Michigan

Michigan election

← 1978
1990 →
 CarlLevin--100thCongress--.pngJack lousma.jpg
NomineeCarl LevinJack Lousma
PartyDemocraticRepublican
Popular vote1,915,8311,745,302
Percentage51.8%47.2%

U.S. Senator before election

Carl Levin
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Carl Levin
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Carl Levin won re-election to a second term.

General election results[11]
PartyCandidateVotes%
DemocraticCarl Levin (Incumbent)1,915,83151.8%
RepublicanJack Lousma1,745,30247.2%
Tisch CitizensArthur Richard Tisch22,8820.6%
LibertarianLynn Johnston7,7860.2%
SocialistHelen Meyers2,6860.1%
Workers WorldWilliam Roundtree2,2790.1%
IndependentMax Dean2,1350.1%
CommunistSamuel L. Webb1,1960.0%
Workers LeagueFred Mazelis8180.0%

Minnesota

Minnesota election

← 1978
1990 →
 RudyBoschwitz.jpgJoan Growe (cropped).jpg
NomineeRudy BoschwitzJoan Growe
PartyRepublicanDFL
Popular vote1,199,926852,844
Percentage58.08%41.28%

U.S. Senator before election

Rudy Boschwitz
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Rudy Boschwitz
Republican

Incumbent Republican Rudy Boschwitz defeated Democratic challenger Joan Growe, Secretary of State of Minnesota.

General election results[12]
PartyCandidateVotes%
RepublicanRudy Boschwitz1,199,92658.08%
DemocraticJoan Growe852,84441.28%
Socialist WorkersEleanor Garcia5,3510.26%
New Union PartyJeffrey M. Miller4,6530.23%
LibertarianRichard Putman3,1290.15%

Mississippi

Mississippi election

← 1978
1990 →
 Thad Cochran 1977 Congressional photo.jpgWilliam F. Winter.jpg
NomineeThad CochranWilliam Winter
PartyRepublicanDemocratic
Popular vote580,314371,926
Percentage60.9%39.1%

U.S. Senator before election

Thad Cochran
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Thad Cochran
Republican

Incumbent Republican Thad Cochran won re-election to a second term over former Democratic Governor William Winter.

Mississippi U.S. Senate Election, 1984[13]
PartyCandidateVotes%
RepublicanThad Cochran580,31460.9%
DemocraticWilliam Winter371,92639.1%

Montana

Montana election

← 1978
1990 →
 Max Baucus 1977 Congressional photo.jpgNo image.svg
NomineeMax BaucusChuck Cozzens
PartyDemocraticRepublican
Popular vote215,704154,308
Percentage56.89%40.70%

U.S. Senator before election

Max Baucus
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Max Baucus
Democratic

Incumbent Max Baucus ran for re-election. He easily won renomination in the Democratic primary, and advanced to the general election, where he faced Chuck Cozzens, a former State Representative and the Republican nominee. Despite President Ronald Reagan's strong performance in the state that year, Baucus was able to easily win a second term over Cozzens.

Democratic Party primary results[14]
PartyCandidateVotes%
DemocraticMax Baucus (Incumbent)80,72679.37%
DemocraticBob Ripley20,97920.63%
Total votes101,705100.00%
Republican Primary results[14]
PartyCandidateVotes%
RepublicanChuck Cozzens33,66150.78%
RepublicanRalph Bouma17,90027.00%
RepublicanAubyn Curtiss14,72922.22%
Total votes66,290100.00%
Montana general election[2]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
DemocraticMax Baucus (Incumbent) 215,704 56.89% +1.20%
RepublicanChuck Cozzens154,30840.70%-3.61%
LibertarianNeil Haprin9,1432.41%
Majority61,39616.19%+4.81%
Turnout379,155
Democratic holdSwing

Nebraska

Nebraska election

← 1978
1990 →
 1979 p80 J James Exon.jpgNo image.svg
NomineeJ. James ExonNancy Hoch
PartyDemocraticRepublican
Popular vote332,117307,147
Percentage51.9%48.0%

U.S. Senator before election

J. James Exon
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

J. James Exon
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat J. James Exon won re-election to a second term over Republican businesswoman Nancy Hoch.

General election results[2]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
DemocraticJ. James Exon (Incumbent) 332,217 51.94% -15.72%
RepublicanNancy Hoch307,14748.02%+15.67%
Write-ins3040.05%
Majority25,0703.92%-31.40%
Turnout639,668
Democratic holdSwing

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New Mexico election

← 1978
1990 →
 Pete Domenici official portrait 2.jpgNo image.svg
NomineePete DomeniciJudith Pratt
PartyRepublicanDemocratic
Popular vote361,371141,253
Percentage71.9%28.1%

New Mexico R Sweep.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Pete Domenici
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Pete Domenici
Republican

Incumbent Republican Pete Domenici successfully ran for re-election to a third term, defeating Democrat Judith Pratt.

Democratic primary results[15]
PartyCandidateVotes%
DemocraticJudith Pratt67,72245.50%
DemocraticNick Franklin56,43437.91%
DemocraticAnselmo A. Chavez24,69416.59%
Majority11,2887.58%
Total votes148,850100.00%
General election results[16][2]
PartyCandidateVotes%
RepublicanPete Domenici (Incumbent)361,37171.90%
DemocraticJudith Pratt141,25328.10%
N/AOthers100.00%
Majority220,11843.79%
Total votes502,634100.00%
Republican hold

North Carolina

North Carolina election

← 1978
1990 →
 JesseHelms.jpgNorth Carolina Governor Jim Hunt in 1992.jpg
NomineeJesse HelmsJim Hunt
PartyRepublicanDemocratic
Popular vote1,156,7681,070,488
Percentage51.7%47.8%

U.S. Senator before election

Jesse Helms
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Jesse Helms
Republican

The election was fought between the Republican incumbent Jesse Helms and Democratic Governor Jim Hunt. Helms won the election, the most expensive non-presidential election in United States history up to that point, by a margin significantly reduced from that that Helms achieved in 1978.

1984 North Carolina U.S. Senate Republican primary election[17]
PartyCandidateVotes%
RepublicanJesse Helms134,67590.65%
RepublicanGeorge Wimbish13,7999.35%
Turnout148,574
1984 North Carolina U.S. Senate Democratic primary election[17]
PartyCandidateVotes%
DemocraticJim Hunt655,42977.48%
DemocraticThomas Allred126,84114.99%
DemocraticHarrill Jones63,6767.53%
Turnout845,946

Hunt had a commanding lead in opinion polls for much of the campaign, with one poll in 1983 putting him nineteen points clear of Helms.[18] However, that was changed by the most bitterly contested election in the country that year.[18] Hunt ran a campaign ad connecting Helms to death squads in El Salvador through his association with the Nationalist Republican Alliance, for whom Roberto d'Aubuisson had recently run for the President of El Salvador.[18] In the short time before election day, however, the highly popular incumbent US President Ronald Reagan gave Helms a significant boost[19] by campaigning for him and running a local TV ad praising Helms and asking registered voters in North Carolina to re-elect him.[20]

The election cost a total of $26,379,483 in total reported spending (over twelve times as much as the 1980 race), of which, 64% ($16.9m) was spent by Helms.[21]

1984 North Carolina U.S. Senate election[17]
PartyCandidateVotes%
RepublicanJesse Helms1,156,76851.7%
DemocraticJim Hunt1,070,48847.8%
LibertarianBobby Emory9,3020.4%
Socialist WorkersKate Daher2,4930.1%
Turnout2,239,051

Voters Education Project (VEP) in Atlanta study showed that Helms received 63 percent of the white vote and was particularly successful in small towns and rural areas, while receiving less than 1 percent of the black vote in 35 almost-all-black precincts.[22] "Hunt got 37 percent of the white and 98.8 percent of the black vote, according to VEP. But only 61 percent of registered blacks voted, down from 63 percent in 1980."[22] While, It had among the lowest industrial wages in the United States and was third in terms of mobile homes.[22]

Oklahoma

Incumbent Democrat, David Boren won re-election to a second term.

Oklahoma election

← 1978
1990 →
 Senator David Boren.jpgNo image.svg
NomineeDavid BorenWill E. Bill Crozier
PartyDemocraticRepublican
Popular vote906,131280,638
Percentage75.6%23.4%

U.S. Senator before election

David Boren
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

David Boren
Democratic

Oklahoma general election
PartyCandidateVotes%
DemocraticDavid Boren (Incumbent)906,13175.6%
RepublicanWill E. Bill Crozier280,63823.4%
LibertarianRobert T. Murphy11,1680.9%
Majority625,49352.2%
Total votes1,197,937[23]100.00%
Democratic hold

Oregon

Rhode Island

Rhode Island election

← 1978
1990 →
 Claiborne Pell.jpgNo image.svg
NomineeClaiborne PellBarbara Leonard
PartyDemocraticRepublican
Popular vote285,811107,545
Percentage72.7%27.3%

Rhode Island Election Results by County, all Democratic.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Claiborne Pell
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Claiborne Pell
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Claiborne Pell successfully sought re-election, defeating Republican Barbara M. Leonard.

General election results[2]
PartyCandidateVotes%
DemocraticClaiborne Pell (Incumbent)285,81172.66%
RepublicanBarbara Leonard107,54527.34%
Majority178,26645.32%
Total votes393,356100.00%
Democratic hold

South Carolina

South Carolina election

← 1978
1990 →
 Strom Thurmond.jpgNo image.svg
NomineeStrom ThurmondMelvin Purvis
PartyRepublicanDemocratic
Popular vote644,814306,982
Percentage66.8%31.8%

U.S. Senator before election

Strom Thurmond
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Strom Thurmond
Republican

Popular incumbent Republican Strom Thurmond cruised to re-election against Democratic challenger Melvin Purvis. Melvin Purvis, a white minister and the son of famous FBI agent Melvin Purvis, won a close race against black photographer Cecil J. Williams. The closeness of the race and the fact that the black candidate did not win propelled Jesse Jackson to request a Justice Department investigation into the primary and he also considered an independent bid for the seat. Governor Richard Riley and 3rd district Representative Butler Derrick flirted with running, but backed down when Thurmond received endorsements from prominent Democrats in South Carolina.

Democratic Primary
CandidateVotes%
Melvin Purvis149,73050.2%
Cecil J. Williams148,58649.8%

Senator Strom Thurmond easily defeated Robert Cunningham to advance to the general election.

Republican Primary
CandidateVotes%
Strom Thurmond44,66294.3%
Robert H. Cunningham2,6935.7%

Thurmond received endorsements from former Democratic governor Robert Evander McNair, Charleston mayor Joseph P. Riley, Jr., and an assortment of black mayors in the state. He did not face a serious challenge and spent almost $1.5 million on the race whereas Purvis spent less than $10,000. An ironic footnote to the election is the fact that Purvis used Thurmond's age as an issue in the campaign. He claimed Thurmond was too old, yet Purvis died less than two years after the election of a heart attack at age 46.

South Carolina U.S. Senate Election, 1984
PartyCandidateVotes%±
RepublicanStrom Thurmond 644,814 66.8% +11.2%
DemocraticMelvin Purvis306,98231.8%-12.6%
LibertarianStephen Davis13,3231.4%+1.4%
No partyWrite-Ins3350.0%0.0%
Majority337,83235.0%+23.8%
Turnout965,45468.7%+11.0%
Republican hold

South Dakota

Tennessee

Tennessee election

← 1978
1990 →
 Sengore.jpgVictor Ashe.jpg
NomineeAl GoreVictor Ashe
PartyDemocraticRepublican
Popular vote1,000,607557,016
Percentage60.72%33.80%

TNDemSweep.png
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Howard Baker
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Al Gore
Democratic

Three-term popular incumbent Howard Baker, who had served as United States Senate Majority Leader since 1981 (Minority Leader from 1977 to 1981) decided not to seek re-election in order to concentrate on a planned bid for 1988 Republican presidential nomination (which did not happen, as he later accepted a White House Chief of Staff position under President Ronald Reagan). This made a seat open.

Democrats nominated Representative and future Vice President of the United States Al Gore, whose father Albert Gore, Sr. once held the other Tennessee Senate seat.

Democratic primary results
PartyCandidateVotes%
DemocraticAl Gore476,582100.00%
Total votes476,582100.00%

In the Republican primary, held on August 2, Ashe easily emerged as a winner:[24]

  • Ashe - 145,744 (86.47%)
  • McNeil - 17,970 (10.66%)
  • Patty - 4,777 (2.83%)
  • Write-in - 49 (0.03%)

Although the Senate election coincided with the landslide re-election of President Reagan, who carried Tennessee by a wide margin, this time his victory did not have any coattails, as it did in 1980, and Democrats picked up three Republican seats. One of the Democratic gains was in Tennessee, where conservative democrat Gore won in a landslide:[25]

General election results
PartyCandidateVotes%
DemocraticAl Gore1,000,60760.72%
RepublicanVictor Ashe557,01633.80%
IndependentEd McAteer87,2345.29%
IndependentKhalil-Ullah Al-Muhaymin3,1790.19%

Texas

Texas election

← 1978
1990 →
 PhilGramm (1).jpgLloyd doggett photo.jpg
NomineePhil GrammLloyd Doggett
PartyRepublicanDemocratic
Popular vote3,111,3482,202,557
Percentage58.6%41.4%

U.S. Senator before election

John G. Tower
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Phil Gramm
Republican

Incumbent Republican John G. Tower decided to retire, instead of seeking a fifth term. Republican Phil Gramm won the open seat over Democratic State Senator Lloyd Doggett.

The Democratic primary was 45% Hispanic, but included many moderate to conservative voters. Hance positioned himself as the most moderate to conservative candidate, who co-sponsored President Ronald Reagan's tax package.[26] Doggett was the more liberal candidate, attacking Reaganomics and getting endorsements from the Texas teachers' union and Agriculture Commissioner Jim Hightower.[27] Krueger was seen as the front runner and was a moderate who supported the state's oil and gas industry, but had close ties with the Hispanic community because he was Spanish-speaking.[28] Hance attacked both Kroeger and Doggett for supporting amnesty for illegal aliens and supporting gay rights.[29]The initial primary was extremely close between the top three candidates. Each candidate got 31% of the electorate. Hance ranked first, only 273 votes ahead of Doggett and 1,560 votes ahead of Krueger.

Since no candidate passed the 50% threshold, Hance and Doggett qualified for the run-off election. Hance fired his pollster despite ranking first.[30] Krueger endorsed fellow U.S. Congressman Hance, saying "Ultimately, the quality of one's public service depends upon the character that one displays in filling an office."[31][32] In the June election, Doggett very narrowly defeated Hance by just 1,345 votes.

Initial election in May 5, 1984
May Democratic primary[33]
PartyCandidateVotes%
DemocraticKent Hance456,44631.2%
DemocraticLloyd Doggett456,17331.2%
DemocraticRobert Charles Krueger454,88631.1%
DemocraticDavid Young47,0623.2%
DemocraticRobert S. Sullivan34,7332.4%
DemocraticHarley Schlanger14,1491.0%
Run-off election on June 2, 1984
June Democratic primary[34]
PartyCandidateVotes%
DemocraticLloyd Doggett491,25150.1%
DemocraticKent Hance489,90649.9%

The Republican primary was a highly competitive, multimillion-dollar contest.[35] Gramm recently switched parties in 1983, but he was a conservative who supported Reaganomics. Gramm spent $4 million.[36]

May Republican primary[37]
PartyCandidateVotes%
RepublicanPhil Gramm247,28073.3%
RepublicanRon Paul55,77116.5%
RepublicanRobert A. Mosbacher Jr.26,2507.8%
RepublicanHank Grover8,0552.5%
General election results[38]
PartyCandidateVotes%
RepublicanPhil Gramm3,111,34858.6%
DemocraticLloyd Doggett2,202,55741.4%

Virginia

Virginia election

← 1978
1990 →
Turnout52.4% (voting eligible)[39]
 Warner(R-VA).jpgNo image.svg
NomineeJohn WarnerEdythe Harrison
PartyRepublicanDemocratic
Popular vote1,406,194601,142
Percentage70.0%29.9%

1984 virginia senate election map.png
U.S. Senate election results map. Red denotes counties/districts won by Warner. Blue denotes those won by Harrison.

U.S. Senator before election

John Warner
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

John Warner
Republican

Incumbent Republican John W. Warner won re-election to a second term. He handily defeated Edythe C. Harrison, member of the Virginia House of Delegates[40] the "first woman in Virginia nominated by the Democratic Party for statewide office."[41]

Virginia general election[42]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
RepublicanJohn Warner (Incumbent) 1,406,194 70.05% +19.88%
DemocraticEdythe C. Harrison601,14229.95%-19.84%
Write-ins1510.01%-0.03%
Majority805,05240.10%+39.71%
Turnout2,007,487
Republican hold

West Virginia

Wyoming

See also

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